Ignorance is the root cause of unhappiness

Ignorance is the root cause of unhappiness

|| Drig darshana shaktyoh ekatmata iva asmita ||6||

English meaning of the sutra: I-feeling is identification of the seer with the instrument of the seer.

English meaning of Sanskrit terms: drig = power of consciousness, power to see; darshana-shaktyoh = that which is seen; darshana = seeing; shakti = power; ekatmata = identity; iva = as if; asmita = I-feeling

Self of man is pure and immortal. Self needs instruments to see the world. Mind-Manas, Mind-stuff- Chitta, Determinative faculty- Buddhi and sense organs- Indriyas, are its instruments. When these instruments are equaled to self of man, identified to being the self, it is called ignorance of egoism- asmita.

Self is not changeable. The way the instruments work on a day to day basis varies. The workings of these instruments are vastly changing. We tend to identify with the role we play, when in reality we are not the roles we assume and the roles too are highly volatile. Purusha does the work of cognition (drigshakti). It is Purusha who sees, thinks and hears (darshanashakti).

But due to the I-feeling we associate seeing, thinking and hearing to our eyes, mind and ears. Not being aware of the distinction is asmita. One can overcome asmita only through meditation-dhyana or the analytical method of Jnana yogis. Asmita is therefore, ‘I am’, the identification of atman with the lower principles, an offshoot of avidya and that which can be overcome. 

|| Sukha anushayi ragah ||7||

English meaning of the sutra: Liking accompanies pleasure.

English meaning of Sanskrit terms: sukha = pleasure; anushayi = accompanying; ragah = liking

Attachment comes through pleasure. If man does not find pleasure in a thing, he does not attach himself to it. He averts it. If he finds pleasure, his mind quests to experience that pleasure again and again. This state is called raga. Raga can be eliminated with a little jerk given by one’s own self. Sometimes nature does the work of elimination. Presence of Raga does not allow us to rise to spiritual heights. 

|| Dukha anushayi dvesha ||8||

English meaning of the sutra: Repulsion dwells on pain.

English meaning of Sanskrit terms: dukha = pain; anushayi = accompanying; dvesha = repulsion

While raga is seeking after pleasure, dwesha is a negative binding. It is hate. Here the mind gets conditioned by repulsion. Dwesha is a more powerful binding force in comparison to raga and should be removed first. It is easy to give up raga once dwesha is removed.

|| Sva-rasa-vahi vidushah api tatha rudhah abhiniveshah ||9||

English meaning of the sutra: Abhinivesha is the clinging to life, established even in the learned, flowing through its own nature.

English meaning of Sanskrit terms: sva-rasa-vahi = substained by its own force; vidushah = of the learned person; api = even; tatha = like that; rudhah = dominating; abhiniveshah = fear of death

Abhinivesha, fear of death is a universal truth. Even the learned do not escape from it. It is a most dominant klesha that comes to surface time to time. Disease in one sets everyone into panic. This fear is seen in all creatures- an insect, a bird, an animal and all human beings. It is a sleeping samskara in our chitta. One perspective is that Abhinivesha is due our attachment with our body. If this attachment is reduced then the fear of death can be reduced to a minimum. When one starts minimizing the fear of death, he is able to remove dwesha, then raga, then asmita-I-feeling, then avidya and arrive at vidya.




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