||kshinna-vritti abhijatasya iva maneh grahitri grahana grahyeshu tat-stha tat-anjanata samapattih||41||
English meaning of the sutra: Complete absorption of the mind that is free from vrittis turns to be just like a polished crystal taking the colour of that on which it rests.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: kshinna-vritti = with modifications of mind weakened; abhijatasya = well polished,purified; iva = just like; maneh = of the crystal; grahitri = cognizer; grahana = senses; grahyeshu = in the knowledge of cognition; tat-stha = on which it stays or rests; tat-anjanata = taking on the coloring of that; samapattih = complete absorption.
The expected result of various practices adopted to still the mind is ‘complete absorption’ – Samapatti. The sutras this far studied clarify that Vrittis cannot be annihilated completely; they can only be weakened or diminished. When the mind is cleared of all vrittis, it turns to perform like a crystal, giving rise to the pure objective consciousness of the object on which the mind meditates. Just as a crystal identifies itself with the object it is placed on, so will the mind identify with that on which it meditates.It should be noted here that until sampatti is achieved, higher practices cannot be taken up. So the primary level is where vrittis diminish and the mind fuses with the object. The mind is able to separate the name, form and the meaning of the object. The following level is where even the object disappears. The modifications of consciousness also become annihilated. The following sutras will discuss further on the six types of fusion called savitarka, nirvitarka, savichara, nirichara, Ananda and asmita.
||Tatra shabda artha jnana vikalpah sankirna savitarka samapattih||42||
English meaning of the sutra: The mixed state of mind resulting on account of alternating consciousness between word, true knowledge and sense perception leads to the state of Samadhi.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: tatra = there, in that state; shabda = sound, word; artha = meaning,true knowledge; jnana = reasoning; vikalpah = by alteration; sankirna = mixed up; savitarka = with worded thinking; vitarka = gross thoughts; samapattih = complete absorption.
Samadhi covers a whole range of super-consciousness.
The first state is savitarka, where an object is mixed up with its word (external vibration), meaning of the object carried inward by the sense currents.
The second state is savikalpa, where the qualities of an object get mixed up in our conception. This state is transcended through meditation.
The next higher state is Samadhi, where the mind goes beyond qualities and becomes one with the object without reference to particular qualities.
||Smriti pari-shuddhau svarupa-shunya iva artha-matra nirbhasa nirvitarka||43||
English meaning of the sutra:
When the mind is, as if, devoid of self-awareness and when only the true knowledge of the object is shining within, it is nirvitarka.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: smriti = of memory; pari-shuddhau = upon purification; pari = upon; shuddhau = purification; svarupa-shunya = devoid of its own nature; shunya = devoid; svarupa = its own nature; iva = as it were; artha-matra = only the object; artha = object; matra = only; nirbhasa = shining; nirvitarka = without; vitarkanir = without; vitarka = gross thought
The previous sutra explained meditation ‘with question’- Savitarka Samadhi. A meditative state that arises with play of duality of subject and object resulting due to mix of work, meaning and knowledge in mind, the 43rd sutra explains meditation without question. A state where mixing is got rid of. Nirvitarka Samadhi, concentration without question. In this higher state, the impressions that are part of memory are got rid of. There is memory without subjective awareness. The mind gains such peculiarity that it loses knowledge of the object. Patanjali says that only when smriti is pure, can it permeate the whole of consciousness and become one with the state of mind. Mind and object become one in Nirvitarka Samadhi. A state that involves purification of memory that gives rise to true knowledge of the object of concentration.
||Etaya eva savichara nirvichara cha sukshma-vishaya vyakhyata||44||
English meaning of the sutra: The subtler stages of Samadhi have been explained.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: etaya = by this; eva = itself,alone; savichara = Samadhi with reflection; nirvichara = Samadhi without reflection; cha = and; sukshma-vishaya = having subtle for their objects;
sukshma = subtle; vishaya= objects; vyakhyata = are explained
This sutra explains the subtle stages namely Savichara- concentration with discrimination, Nirvichara- concentration without reflection of Samadhi, Ananda and asmita. These come after nirvitarka Samadhi, a state where the student is aware of an object, its name and form and qualities. There is use of language, thinking happens through words.
Thought devoid of language is called Vichara. Vichara is consciousness flowing without the basis of language. Savichara sees the mind alternating in time, space and idea with no fusion amongst the three. Each exists as pure awareness. To put it simply- that part of mind with language taken away becomes savichara. It is sudden flash to vision that transcends language. The consciousness in savichara is called pratyabhijna, meaning illumined knowledge.
In nirvichara even the space, time and idea are also taken out. Yet something else, known as the essential nature of thought remain. In Ananda Samadhi there is absolute bliss not associated with sense experience. In Asmita, there is no thought, no awareness of time space but complete understanding of that awareness.
||Sukshma vishayatvam cha alinga paryavasanam||45||
English meaning of the sutra: The subtler stages of Samadhi end at equilibrium state of gunas.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: sukshma = subtle; vishayatvam = stages of Samadhi; cha = and; alinga = prakriti ; paryavasanam = extention
Fine objects include the organs, the mind (aggregate of all senses), egoism, the mind stuff, the equilibrium state of gunas called Pradhana (chief). Purusha is exempted from the list of fine objects.
Meditation in savitarka, nirvitarka and asamprajnata, savichara, nirvichara and asamprajnata, Ananda, asamprajnata and asmita asamprajnata are concentrations with seed. The state achieved at the end of these meditations is alinga. Alinga is the last state, where the three gunas – sattwa, rajas and tamas are equally and completely mixed with each other. It is a stage where one cannot specify where the consciousness is.
||Tah eva sabijah samadhih||46||
English meaning of the sutra: Stages seen earlier are samadhi with seed.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: tah = those; eva = only; sabijah = with seed; samadhih = Samadhi
The object of meditation is the ‘seed’. It is the basis for the consciousness. On meditation, consciousness becomes one with the seed. Even this state does not lead to liberation. So this consciousness of asmita too has to be removed.The process from vitarka to asmita is sabeeja asamprajnata. In the entire process the super-consciousness has a basis to rest upon- first the Language, second the reflection and later simple experience.
What these samadhis bring to the practitioner is explained in further sutras.
||Nirvichara vaisharadye adhyatma prasadah||47||
The spiritual light dawns after becoming absolutely perfect in nirvichara Samadhi.
English meaning of the sutra: Nir= without; vichara = subtle thoughts; vaisharadye = after becoming absolutely expert; adhyatma = spiritual; prasadah = illumination
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: Nirvichara Samadhi is called the highest form of super consciousness as after this intellectual functioning stop completely.
Sutras of Samadhi pada have taken us on a journey through levels of Sabeeja Samadhi – Concentration with seed. We have travelled through stages of Vitarka and Vichara. Patanjali has detailed from Savitarka where the mind works within the realms of space and time with worded thinking. With further meditation, it moves to Nirvitarka, a stage where mind is in level with the object of concentration without questions. Asamprajnata is an intermediate stage that practitioner encounters from time to time where he is able to drop the symbols he uses for meditation, yet unable to let go of the impressions these symbols have made. The practitioner moves to levels of consciousness where he transcends language but still is within the realms of space, time and idea. Savichara is a stage of meditation with reflection progressing to Nirvichara. Here there is cessation of intellectual functioning.
Perfection of Nirvichara leads to different stages of awareness.
||Ritambhara tatra prajna||48||
English meaning of the sutra: At the borderline of nirvichara Samadhi, the super-consciousness becomes full with cosmic experience.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: ritambhara = full of experience; tatra = there; prajna = super consciousness
On reaching nirvichara, there is no work by the senses.
According to Indian philosophy Sat means existence. Sat has relative and absolute aspect. Satyam is the relative aspect susceptible to change and Ritam is absolute knowledge. It is ultimate beyond matter and energy. Attaining states beyond nirvichara is like meeting silence that is attained when sound reaches its highest vibrations and light is darkness when it attains the highest vibrations. Here Satyam become Ritam. This is a state of void or shoonya that is vibrating at a very high rate and so it becomes still. It is not seen and so is said to be cosmic – Ritam.
||Shruta anumana prajnabhyam anya-vishaya vishesha-arthatvat||49||
English meaning of the sutra: The knowledge of higher consciousness is different from knowledge gained through lower consciousness.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: shruta = heard; anumana = inference; prajnabhyam = from those two types of consciousness; anya-vishaya = another objects; anya = different; vishaya = objects,fields, realms, domains; vishesha-arthatvat = because of having particular objects
Culmination of Yoga is Self-realization (Sutra 3).
Practice of Yoga prepares man, to approach the state of dwelling in higher consciousness attained through direct self experience and where perceptions of things are beyond reason. Higher consciousness can be attained indirectly too, yet the knowledge so acquired – through a person or a book is still lower knowledge. While lower consciousness absorbs knowledge through senses, testimony and inference (Indriyas and Buddhi) and provides knowledge of non perceivable things, the knowledge of higher consciousness is direct and actual and not a subject of speech and mind.
||Tajjah samskarah anya samskara paribandhi||50||
English meaning of the sutra: Dynamic consciousness born of sabeeja Samadhi obstructs all other impressions.
English meaning of Sanskrit terms: tajjah = born of that; samskarah = dynamic consciousness; anya = of other; samskara = dynamic consciousness; paribandhi = that which prevents.
Practitioner needs to reach the higher consciousness. He needs to ultimately reach outside the range of Prakriti. Samyama is attained through the three states of concentration, meditation and samadhi. With Samyama there is control over the awareness of the object. Concentration is the key to reach higher consciousness. Yet past impressions otherwise dormant in consciousness, emerge with great force, due to their repression, when process of being in the higher consciousness begins. It is generally experienced that past impressions or samskaras, not purposefully thought of in daily living, that which have been repressed come out and react with force, out of their dormancy, at the time of concentration. So the practitioner needs such practice where his concentration generates such an impression that can repress all of the past impressions. Even with samyama, the seed remains. This is pratyaya, the seed that is with us from the birth, the permanent atoms that are carried forward to this birth. The practitioner is seen breaking the various patterns of consciousness through pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, meditation, Samadhi to reach out to the higher knowledge that helps create such an impression or samskara where the mind is synchronized with the synchronistic mind of the universe that taps into the local correlation of the universe and thought intentions become very powerful leading to the spontaneous fulfillment of desire. This is called Ritam Bhara Pragya.